Limestone is a sedimentary rock composed largely of the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). Most limestone is composed of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral or foraminifera. Sealing limestone is highly recommended as stain removal can be limited due to its porosity and chemical sensitivity.
A glossy, highly reflective surface
- Surface is very smooth and not very porous
- Polished crystals bring out brilliant colors and grains (400 to 3500 grit to polish stone)
- Shine comes from the natural reflection of the stone’s crystals
- Polish can wear away due to heavy foot traffic and improper maintenance
A slightly rough texture that is achieved by tumbling small pieces of marble, limestone or granite to achieve an old-world/worn appearance
A flat matte to low sheen gloss
- Surface is very smooth, but very porous
- Many more and wider gaps in surface than polished stone
- Medium density
- Commonly used in low traffic areas or for aesthetics
- Colors are not as vibrant as a polished stone
SAND BLASTED LIMESTONE
Pressurized flow of sand and water that results in a matte finish
Pounding action of hammer develops textured surface. Reduces stone’s color tones
Pre Sealing Limestone
Pre sealing limestone is highly recommended prior to installation. Many Limestones contain soluble salts and can often become permanently discoloured from the installation process. It is always best to consult with your stone supplier to verify whether your limestone requires this treatment. For best results, sealing limestone on all six sides using Aqua Mix® ProBlock a minimum of 24 hours prior to installation.
Aqua Mix® ProBlock is a water based penetrating sealer designed to resist staining caused by water soluble minerals (including picture framing effect) which are normally absorbed through the back of the stone during installation. It also helps resist efflorescence migration.
If applying an Enhancing Sealer as the final surface seal, DO NOT apply any ProBlock to the top surface as it will stop the penetration of enhancing sealers. Please contact Aqua Mix® prior to installation if an enhancer is specified for use.
Pre-Grout Sealing Limestone
If the stone does not require to be pre-sealed, it is generally recommended to apply a coat of sealer on the surface prior to grouting. This is to act as a grout release and assist in the grout clean-up process. This is very important as acidic cleaners cannot be used to removed cured grout residue.
If the surface is textured (sandblasted, bush-hammered, tumbled) applying a coat of Aqua Mix® Grout Release would work best.
If the surface is smooth (polished, honed) than applying a coat of the final sealer you select is recommended.
Grout Haze Removal
It is important that all of the grout haze is removed between 3-10 days. A minimum of 3 days for the the grout to cure and harden, and no longer than 10 days or it may need to be mechanically removed.
Grout haze can be removed using Aqua Mix® NanoScrub®, if Aqua Mix® Grout Release was used, the grout and Grout Release can be removed usingAqua Mix®Heavy-Duty Tile & Grout Cleaner. If epoxy grout has been used you can remove using Aqua Mix® Sealer & Coating Remover.
Smooth surfaces (polished, honed) should only be sealed using either a Natural Look Sealer or an Enhancing Sealer. The best sealer for marble is Aqua Mix® Sealer’s Choice® Gold – Rapid Cure, however we have a range of sealers to suit your requirements:
Sealing Limestone with a Natural Look Penetrating Sealer:
- Good: Aqua Mix® Penetrating Sealer
- Better: Aqua Mix® Pro-Solv®
- Best: Aqua Mix® Sealer’s Choice® Gold – Rapid Cure or Aqua Mix® Ultra-Solv®
Sealing Limestone with an Enhanced Look Penetrating Sealer:
Note: Sealing Limestone with a penetrating sealer will not alter the slip resistance. For more information regarding slip resistance, click here
Maintaining Limestone Surfaces
Countertops and Walls
Countertops/Bench-tops, vanities and walls should be regularly cleaned using any of Aqua Mix® Routine Cleaners.
Regular use of Aqua Mix® Aqua Shield™ Cleaner & Resealer will ensure that your limestone always maintains maximum stain resistance.
Aqua Mix® Brilliance is an excellent cleaner/polisher that adds luster to your polished limestone, regular use helps protect factory polish.
Floors should be regularly cleaned using Aqua Mix® Concentrated Stone & Tile Cleaner. If the surface is allowed to build up, then scrub the surface using Aqua Mix® Stone Deep Clean, Aqua Mix® Heavy-Duty Tile & Grout Cleaner or Aqua Mix® NanoScrub® and an Aqua MIx® AquaScrub.
Etching of Limestone
Because carbonates (marble, travertine or limestone) react to acid (acidic liquids & cleaners) to create carbon dioxide, the effects to the stone are permanent. The destruction of carbonates shows on the surface of stone as etching.
Although the particles of stone cannot be recovered, they can be polished or refinished to match the finish of the stone.
Aqua Mix® have a range of Stone Restoration Products that are designed to repair and restore marble, travertine & limestone surfaces. It should be noted that penetrating sealers cannot stop acidic liquids from etching limestone surfaces.
For re-honing of Limestone, Aqua Mix® KnockDown should be used.
If you have a stain that you wish to remove, Aqua Mix® Poultice Stain Remover should be used. This product is a blend of absorbent clays that can be mixed with water or an appropriate chemical to extract the stain from within the stone.